Eventos Académicos, 39 ISCHE. Educación y emancipación

Tamaño de fuente: 
Impact of Education on the Activities of the Nationalist Movements Towards Nigerian Independence, 1945 – 1960
Hannah Okediji

Última modificación: 2017-07-16


The attainment of independence from the British colonial rule did not just happen neither come cheaply, but was achieved through struggle and determined effort of some energetic and patriotic leaders and youths who felt bored, cheated and oppressed by the excesses of the British overlord, having being well informed through traditional and western education about their rights, obligations and certain policies of the world powers like U.S.A. on self determination and self-government decided to mount up the struggle and took the battle to the gate of Britain against imperialism and for political liberation. The study examined the activities of the nationalist movements and how education influenced their struggles to kick against foreign domination and were able to attain independence for Nigeria in 1960. Historical research design was adopted for the paper, primary and secondary sources of information were used to collect and analyzed data. Such as oral interview, internet materials, textbooks and articles in journals. The paper focused on definition of concepts; factors that prompted nationalism in Nigeria between 1945 and 1960; Policy Issues between 1945 and 1960; impact of education on the activities of the nationalist movement, 1945 -1960; activities carried out by the nationalist movement to attain Nigerian Independence in 1960 and offer suggestions for educational and political growth in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed that nationalism in Nigeria are in three (3) stages, the first phase started in 1885 after the Berlin Conference which gave room for the partitioning of African nations by the Europeans, and brought Nigeria under British rule, the native occupants resisted the British intervention of Northern and Southern protectorate in 1914 while the third Phase was after the second world war and got to its  peak in 1955, the nationalist leader like, Obafemi Awolowo, Nnamdi Azikwe, Herbert Macaulay, H.O. Davies, Samuel Ladoke Akintola, Tafawa Balewa among others played key roles as education elites who represented major ethnic groups, they laboured tirelessly and struggled for emancipation. They used the formulation of political and social groups including publications, attendance in policy making meeting i.e. parliamentary meetings in Nigeria and London to fight their course. Groups like National Council of Nigerian Citizens, (NCNC), National Youth Movement(NYM), Egbe Omo Oduduwawere formed in London in 1947, Action Group (AG), Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) among others. Publications used as media for struggle were Daily Times, Nigerian Tribune by Obafemi Awolowo, West African Pilot by Nnamdi Azikiwe, Lagos Daily News by Herbert Macaulay, among others. The following recommendations were raised in the study, that; Nigerians should return to the part laid down for educational and political advancement by the nationalist leaders; the zeal, love for unity, selfless service and spirit of patriotism employed to achieve independence, should continue among the citizenry; education should take prior place in reality not only in policy decisions in the yearly budget, while the youths are encouraged to make sacrifice to improve the nation.