Eventos Académicos, 39 ISCHE. Educación y emancipación

Tamaño de fuente: 
The teaching feminization and the civilization efforts in the schooling of São Paulo´s countryside in Brazil: preliminary reflections
Angélica Pall Oriani

Última modificación: 2017-07-16


In this summary, preliminary results of a post doctorate degree research, in Education, developed at the University of São Paulo, are disclosed, focusing on the São Paulo´s countryside school’s history. The contained reflections question the objectives of the civilizational efforts at the countryside schools throughout the twentieth century, which went through the transmission of values ​​and specific behaviors aimed at restraining the exoduses to urban spaces. In parallel, it is investigated how the massive presence of women as teachers in these institutions is articulated to the disregard of the educational policies these schools historically have had. Almost always precarious and inadequate physical space and the offering of a healthy conditions for teaching and learning, educational policies considered the countryside schools a low priority due to their deficiencies. However, they played an important role in the scope of governmental purposes, since they reached the most remote rural areas and carried civilization in the form of urban custom and values (cordiality, discipline, valuing work and the production of goods) and contributed to restrain the migratory flow from fields to cities. Countryside schools of the state of São Paulo were the first jobs in the teaching career; Thus, teachers who have been approved in a public tender should spend a period of at least one year in those institutions before requesting a transfer to another institution. However, the use of political alliances, which operated in parallel with public tenders for the appointment, removal and transfer of teachers, was recurrent. As a result, even without the required period of time in the countryside schools, some teachers were able to be transferred to urban schools and others were promoted as principals in other school or even as region school supervisors. It is at this point that the analyzes done by Demartini and Antunes (2002) converge, when they considered a problem the easing of promotions for male teachers in comparison to female teachers, indicating that the rise in the teaching career was rapid for men, who stayed a shorter period of time in the classroom and soon were promoted to technical posts within the educational system. On the other hand, the career of a female teacher was almost exclusively within the classroom space, with little progression to other positions within the system. In this sense, practically throughout the first six decades of the twentieth century, it can be seen that the few male teachers who worked in the countryside schools remained for a short period of time in that place and were briefly transferred to as principal in other schools or as region school supervisors. These issues, which refer to the feminization movement of the primary teaching profession, can be analyzed in a way that correlates with the historical discredit of the countryside schools in the educational imaginary and the disregard of these institutions by the educational policies due to their precarious conditions of functioning and organization.